Oncological diseases is huge trouble not only for people but also for animals. However, there are representatives of fauna which dreadful not cancer. It’s whales and elephants are the largest mammals on the planet.
Cancer begins when cells for some reason the control mechanism is broken. It is widely accepted that large beings increases the risk of this disease, but elephants, by its example, refute this view. In addition, these giants get cancer is much rarer than smaller animals. This phenomenon is called a paradox Peto. For reference: Richard Peto, a well-known epidemiologist at the University of Oxford).
Elephants, long-lived species, obviously there are special mechanisms that suppress the development of cancerous tumors. The onset of cancer is determined by 2 two genes: proto-oncogenes and antionkogenami. If the first function incorrectly in your body happens to fail, and starts producing patologičnyh (cancerous) cells. The same applies to antionkogenami.
Elephants and naked diggers
Increase in tumor suppressor inhibits the activation of proto-oncogenes. To this conclusion came Joshua Shiffman (University of Utah). Together with colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Arizona specialist investigated the deaths of elephants. Scientists have compared this figure with the mortality of hyenas and humans. Death from cancer in the Giants there were only 5% of cases, while the hyenas have the figure was 8%, and 25% of people. Analysis of the genome of elephants allowed determine whether 40–Ka p53 gene copies (in humans are only 2). This is a powerful antionkogen, to prevent abnormal cell division. When p53 identifies DNA damage, it activates genes that perpetrate the destruction of cancer cells. Once scientists decided to explore in more detail the reaction of p53 gene in tumor formation. For this they was irradiated cells several elephants ionizing radiation. DNA activation–restoring genes, abnormal cells are simply abolished, causing cancer deprived all chances for further development. Scientists hoped that biotechnology in the near future will enable them to conduct operations to supply the human body dozens of copies of the “anti-cancer“ genome. In addition to the elephant in the world there is another animal, which to this day remains puzzling to researchers. It is a bare zemlekope. Such outwardly nasty creature (rodent) is native to Africa.
Mole Rat lives about 30 years, and for small fauna is quite “respectable“ age. In the year 2013 Vera Gorbunova and Andrey Seluanov (University of Rochester) in the publication Nature published an article dedicated to the bare zemlekopu. It dealt with the sustainability of the animal to the oncological diseases. In the intercellular space of these rodents present an abundance of hyaluronic acid, preventing cells from clumping and malignant degeneration.